For a long time people wondered when and by whom Naples was founded. Today, thanks to the incessant and precious activity of historians, we know that the Neapolitan city was founded in the 9th century BC. C. by Greek colonists. Arriving from the island of Rhodes, they found the ideal conditions for a settlement in the Gulf. In what was still an unknown land, they found mineral wealth, a favorable climate and fertile land.
However, the real foundation took place on the Phlegrean coast, in Cuma. Only later did the Greeks move towards the coast, establishing a first inhabited nucleus where the Borgo Marinaro now stands.
It is precisely from this area, which extended up to Monte Echia, that Naples took shape
However, the city was not established before 21 December 475 BC.
The word Neapolis can in fact be translated into New Town and referred to an important extension of the territory: the Greek polis was at the beginning only a small urban establishment, only later the Cumans, in an attempt to provide the city with a defensive system, extended the territory up to the area that we know today as the Historic Center. The original part of the city – called Parthenope – was in fact renamed Palepolis, i.e. the Old City.

In 438 BC. C. the dominion of the territory was taken away from the Cumans with a battle against the Samnites, a people of Italic origin who settled in the Samnium. The real development of Naples is placed in this part of history. In fact, the city experienced its maximum splendour, becoming one of the most important institutions of the Mediterranean Sea.
The creativity of the Neapolitan people has attributed a fascinating legend to the birth of Neapolis. The story is connected to the myth of Ulysses present in Homer's Odyssey. The famous hero, curious to hear the song of the sirens but well aware of their danger, had his men tie him to the main mast of the ship. It was the Siren Partenope who tried to seduce Ulysses. However, the encounter between the two was fatal to the creature who, having failed in the enterprise, dropped to his death in the water. His body was dragged by the waves to the coast which, sucking it up, gave life to the famous Gulf of Naples.
The number 1 reason Naples is famous is definitely the pizza. This is where the famous pizza margherita was born, made in honor of the homonymous sovereign by the pizza maker Raffaele Esposito. It then became the symbolic dish not only of the city but of the whole of Italy.
Although there are variants that use flour other than wheat, the first difference between Roman and Neapolitan pizza arises from the percentage of water compared to the flour, between 55% and 60% in the Roman dough and between 58% and 65% in the Neapolitan dough.
The margherita pizza is not in the list of true Neapolitan pizzas which are 5. Of these, the Marinara (“strengthened” by the STG), the revived Mastunicola (with lard), the Calzone or Ripieno have remained currently in use.
The historic center of Naples is the largest in Europe, a UNESCO jewel that has been preserved to this day.
It is not a place like many others, but one of the places that everyone should visit at least once in their life, cradled by a unique atmosphere in the world.
The area of ​​the historic center of Naples recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site includes the following districts: Avvocata, Montecalvario, San Giuseppe, Porto, Pendino, Mercato, Chiaia, San Ferdinando, Stella, San Carlo all'Arena, San Lorenzo and Vicaria, part of the hills of Vomero and Posillipo. Neighborhoods that, overall, are to be considered an authentic stage of art, history and urban planning that tells the stratifications of the city of Naples and its almost three millennia long history.
Have you ever thought about a walk along the decumani of the city of Naples? The three Decumani, the ancient roads that cut through the city, will take you back centuries; you can visit Spaccanapoli with the Basilica del Gesù and the tiled monastery of Santa Chiara, or immerse yourself in Via dei Tribunali with the Greek agora, Piazza San Gaetano. Discover the most famous cornerstone of Naples, San Gregorio Armeno, the street of the terracotta shepherds, or the Greco-Roman route under the Basilica of San Lorenzo Maggiore and Napoli Sotterranea.
Castel Nuovo, better known by the name of Maschio Angioino, is a medieval and Renaissance castle built at the behest of Charles I of Anjou in 1266, after defeating the Swabians, ascending the throne of Sicily and having moved the capital from Palermo to Naples.
Since the 13th century, the imposing Maschio Angioino, with its large five cylindrical towers, has been one of the symbols of the city of Naples, thanks to its strategic position in Piazza Municipio, in the Port area.
The "New" castle was built to guard the city from enemy incursions, in fact the position in which it was built was of strategic importance and completed a defensive system which previously had the Castel dell'Ovo as protagonists, by now too old and obsolete due to the attack systems of the time, and Castel Capuano, in a non-strategic position and far from the sea. And it was precisely these last two castles that suggested the denomination of Castel Nuovo, to distinguish it from the previous two, which were more ancient.
The Cathedral of Naples, also known as the cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta, is one of the most important religious buildings in the city and the place where three times a year it is possible to witness the rite of the dissolution of the blood of San Gennaro, the patron saint of Naples. The Cathedral complex also includes the Basilica of Santa Restituta, where the baptistery of San Giovanni in Fonte is located, considered the oldest in the West, and the chapel of the Treasure of San Gennaro which houses the relics of the saint. Those who visit Naples cannot refrain from visiting this magnificent example of Gothic architecture which represents an important symbol not only for the history of Naples but also for all Neapolitans. The religious building has been destroyed and rebuilt several times over the years, so the structure we admire today is the result of several renovations. On September 19 of each year, the date on which the martyrdom of San Gennaro is remembered, a solemn celebration takes place in the Cathedral of Naples with the presence of the cardinal archbishop and many faithful. During the ceremony you can admire the liquefaction of the Saint's blood which remains dissolved for the following eight days. This is one of the occasions that attracts many faithful and devoted to the Saint not only from Naples and its province but also from all of Campania.
Under the city of Naples there is an intricate network of caves, tunnels, aqueducts and tunnels, an underground world located forty meters deep, away from the buzz of the city. Underground Naples is an immense engineering work that you absolutely must see on your trip to Naples.
Visiting Underground Naples means taking a journey through history, up to over 2000 years ago, along a path full of mystery and charm. We have created a useful guide to the visit.
A city born from its own bowels. This is how Naples could be considered, a city of volcanoes, waters, monuments and irrepressible 'humanity', therefore of 'life'. To these realities that immediately spring to mind, a fifth must be added: the tuff, which in turn has shaped the underground city over time, no less fascinating than the one on the surface. The morphological and geological conformation of the Neapolitan territory is in fact composed for the most part of tuffaceous rocks which possess the characteristic of being light, friable and stable: elements that have allowed the birth and construction of the capital of Campania. 
It was the Greeks, starting from 470 BC, who gave life to the formation of the underground city, with the primitive excavations to create cisterns used for the collection of rainwater. The excavations created waste material, blocks of tufa which were used for the construction of walls, temples, houses and, underground, funerary hypogea; just below the very central Piazza Plebiscito there was a small extinct volcano of yellow rocks (monteEchia) that the Greeks have long used; thus Neapolis (new city) was born. With the arrival of the Romans, the impressive development of the underground networks began. In fact, in the Augustan era, they created road tunnels (Cocceio and Seiano caves) and above all the complex network of aqueducts that exploited the waters from the Serino springs, about seventy kilometers from the city centre. Very extensive aqueduct, that of Naples; some branches reached as far as Miseno, in order to feed the Piscina Mirabilis, a water reserve for the Roman naval fleet.
Vesuvius in the background, lively atmospheres, the scent of fresh fish, the call of the Gulf islands: living the sea in Naples is an experience that involves all the senses. The beaches of Ischia, Procida and Capri compete for the prize of charm with the glimpses of the Sorrento Peninsula, without forgetting the historic beaches of the city coast. What to see in Naples to savor its magic and enjoy well-deserved relaxation? You don't necessarily need to set sail by boat: just choose the most enchanting accesses to the sea, often located a few meters from the centre. Like the elegant beaches of Posillipo, the most exclusive district of the city, surrounded by sun-kissed coves, tiny lidos and naturalistic and archaeological treasures, such as those included in the Gaiola Park. The choice ranges from the most central beaches rich in history - such as the famous Bagno Elena - to the famous seaside resorts of Ischia and the neighboring islands. In Naples we no longer know what to look at: this applies both to the monuments and to the beautiful landscapes that multiply on all sides. Summer here has a thousand faces: from the most chic and exclusive bays to lively beaches where you can sip an aperitif in a festive and engaging atmosphere. We have selected the 15 most beautiful beaches in Naples and its surroundings, where you can spend a long relaxing season among the magical views of the gulf.
Considered one of the symbols that make up the past and present history of Naples, Vesuvius is a volcano located within the Vesuvius National Park and is one of the most fascinating attractions in all of Campania. Known throughout the world for the eruption of 79 AD, which destroyed numerous cities of the time with a rain of ash and lapilli, including Pompeii and Herculaneum which have now become important archaeological sites, Vesuvius made its last eruption in March of 1944 when it destroyed the towns of Massa di Somma and San Sebastiano and covered many areas of southern Italy with ashes. The volcano, also known by the name of Somma-Vesuvio, has a height of 1281 meters and looks like a typical "enclosure" volcano since it is located inside a caldera that measures about 4 km in diameter. 
Originally, in fact, the volcano consisted of Monte Somma which, following a strong explosion, suffered the collapse of the top part of the volcanic structure and saw the formation of a depression called the caldera where, after the resumption of the eruptive activity, it then formed the current structure of Vesuvius. The Vesuvius crater has an elliptical shape and is 230 meters deep with a maximum diameter of approximately 650 meters. Vesuvius looks like a truly suggestive volcano given not only its position but also its simple accessibility. For these reasons, there are various activities that can be done in this area, such as organizing a suggestive visit to the crater of Vesuvius or following one of the wonderful paths in the park which allow you to discover the flora and fauna of the place. 


Casatiello is a Easter cake, ride and savoury enriched with tasty ingredients; the slow leavening make it soft, the oven cooking make it fragrant and the filling made of cold cut, lard and cheese make it nourish with a strong flavour. Casatiello has a strong traditional value, given that it is typically eaten, during the Easter period with the family and the relatives, in fact it plays an important role in the Neapolitan tradition to be handed down from a generation to another.

The casatiello is also excellent for a picnic on the grass, on a trip out of town. It can be easily carried in a container. It has no flying parts and can be placed in a picnic basket wrapped only with paper or cloth.
Some put provolone, salami, grated pecorino, hard-boiled eggs inside. Others hard-boiled eggs put them on the outside. But in both versions it is really tasty. You can drink red wine and be together outdoors and enjoy a nice day.


The nativity scene in my family was a ritual. My grandparents had handmade wax figurines, which are nowhere to be found. They were very ancient, delicate, fragile. It was beautiful to make the crib. My father went around looking for real moss and brought it home still damp. Then everything else, stones, branches, leaves, everything was gathered around in the countryside. There was a different magic when my father was alive. He took care of the lights, he had a lot of patience to illuminate the right spots. Now, on the other hand, everything is done quickly, in a hurry, with tiredness and stress. The best time of Christmas for me was when I was a child and my grandparents were all alive. Now I don't feel that magic anymore and I would love to feel it but I know it's impossible.
Etymologically, the word itself means "manger" which is actually the place where the baby Jesus is placed at his birth, with Joseph and Mary who look after him with the help of the ox's breath and the donkey that allowed him to give some warmth in the cold cave they were in.
And this is precisely what the nativity scene that many of us have at home at Christmas depicts: the reproduction of the sacred grotto with the baby Jesus and his family.

There are few and confused elements that foreshadow a precise origin and before 1200 it was depicted by unknown artists (The Virgin with Jesus at the Catacombs of Priscilla in Rome) or even by Giotto.

The first real exhibition of a nativity scene in Italy is obtained in 1220 in Greccio, thanks to Saint Francis of Assisi who, on a trip to Bethlehem, where he saw the nativity scene recalled, wanted to reproduce it in Italy.

So he celebrated a mass in a wood, in the presence of an ox and a donkey and the saint sang some verses of the Gospel over the manger.

Thus there was the first representation of a living nativity scene in Italy. From here on, the crib had a slow and inexorable diffusion and from a purely artistic element, it began to be popular.
From the fifteenth century it spread to central Italy, arrived in the Kingdom of Naples, began to spread in homes and be part of the popular sentiment.

In Naples, in the houses of the nobles, they even began to make sumptuous, large, refined versions, with precious materials and each house pursued its own spectacular version of it, as in a competition.

The Neapolitan nativity scene is still a great classic today, one of its characteristics is that of uniting the cave of Jesus with various other shepherds, intent on their daily life, each in its own occupation.

Via San Gregorio Armeno is very famous, where even today master craftsmen compose cribs, build shepherds also depicting current figures that can be politicians, cinema characters and various others.

An art that every year, during the Christmas holidays, attracts many people to visit and attend the birth of the shepherds in the Neapolitan city.

Obviously there are also other types of cribs in other areas of Italy, among these we remember the Genoese, the Bolognese (among the oldest), the Sicilian and others, each with its own differences in materials used, characters, among the many.

A type of craftsmanship that besides our country has also conquered other nations in Europe and in the world where everyone creates a version with their own characteristics.

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